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When available, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the first step to optimal outcomes

Supportive clinical evidence from sibling studies suggests that early intervention provides multiple opportunities to improve patient outcomes through disease-specific management and early initiation of ERT, if available.1-6

ERT, whether initiated early or later in life, has been shown to improve key clinical parameters, such as endurance and pulmonary measures, which are critical to quality of life, maintenance of ambulation, and activities of daily living.7,8

  • ERT is currently available in many countries for the treatment of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I, II, IVA, and VI8,9
  • Clinical trials investigating the feasibility and potential benefits of ERT in other MPS disorders are ongoing
  • When available, home-based infusion of ERT is an important clinical consideration10–12
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Management guidelines and expert reviews on MPS disorders call for initiation of ERT, when available, as soon as diagnosis is confirmed.6,8,13

Lifelong management in the new era of MPS

The new era of management for progressive, complex, genetic conditions, such as mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders, hinges on the efficient coordination of each patient’s healthcare team by a medical home.1

Geneticists and/or metabolic specialists are typically at the centre and help to coordinate multidisciplinary care and an individualised management plan.2,3

Cardiologists play a critical role in multidisciplinary coordinated care of patients with MPS for several reasons:2,4

  • Cardiac involvement is often a predominant feature of MPS
  • It is uniformly progressive, with prevalence and severity increasing over time
  • It often leads to premature mortality

Because of the prevalence and severity of cardiac involvement, continued cardiac assessment is a key component to effective management of these patients.3,4 The most common cardiac manifestations of MPS that should be monitored include the following:5

  • Mitral and/or aortic valve thickening and regurgitation
  • Cardiac hypertrophy
  • Thickened chordae tendineae
  • Gross narrowing of the coronary arteries
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Many MPS disorders have available management guidelines and
speciality-specific consensus recommendations regarding lifelong management of MPS. Guidelines typically recommend the following:3,6

  • Comprehensive baseline assessments (e.g. speciality-specific evaluations, functional performance, and disease burden) by appropriate specialists
  • Regular, defined monitoring intervals to assess multisystemic disease progression

Early and ongoing assessments from a coordinated care team can improve patient outcomes and may help prevent irreversible damage.6

In patients with MPS disorders, the benefits of coordinated care may improve many aspects of a patient’s – and a family’s – outlook over the long term.3,6

Cardiovascular involvement varies across and within MPS subtypes4

While cardiac involvement is seen in all MPS subtypes, most studies show it tends to occur earlier and more frequently in MPS I, II, and VI than in MPS III and IV. However, it is important to remember that signs and symptoms are unpredictable and clinically heterogeneous both across and within MPS subtypes. Patients may exhibit non-classical and/or classical cardiac signs of MPS, as well as rapidly or slowly progressing disease.4 This underscores the importance of both baseline and ongoing cardiac monitoring in all patients with MPS.3

Expert reviews and management guidelines provide assessment recommendations

A number of expert reviews are available that present state-of-the-art practices in the assessment and monitoring of cardiac abnormalities in patients with MPS.3,7-9 Many MPS disorders also have available management guidelines and cardiology-specific consensus recommendations regarding chronic care.3,6,10

These reviews and guidelines include the following overarching recommendations:3,6,10

  • A comprehensive baseline cardiac assessment
  • Regular, defined monitoring intervals to assess cardiac disease progression

The figure below details recommended diagnostic techniques and assessments to evaluate cardiac anatomy and function in patients with MPS at both initial diagnosis and regular intervals thereafter. Recommended assessment intervals range from 1 to 3 years, depending on MPS subtype.4

Recommended-techniques-for-initial-ongoing-assessment-of-cardiac-anatomy-and-function-in-patients-with-MPS

Additional routine cardiac evaluations should be considered before major operative interventions, including careful auscultation of heart and lungs, as well as right arm and leg blood pressure measurements.4

Cardiologists involved in the ongoing management of patients with MPS should keep the following in mind:4

  • Clinical examination of patients with MPS can be difficult because of the patient’s physical and/or intellectual limitations
  • Clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac involvement are uncommon – for example, in one study, only 6 of 26 patients with documented echocardiographic disease presented with cardiac signs or symptoms
  • The absence of precordial murmurs does not exclude the presence of cardiac disease
  • Echocardiography and electrocardiography are key diagnostic techniques for evaluation of valves, ventricular dimensions, and function

Frequency of assessments and involvement of specific specialists vary across the different MPS types. For patients with MPS diseases associated with primary neurodegenerative and cognitive complications, such as MPS I, II, and III, additional and regular neurobehavioural and psychiatric evaluations are recommended.6,11,12

In addition to speciality-specific assessments that should be done to facilitate positive long-term outcomes for patients with MPS, important steps can be taken by the coordinating physician, typically the geneticist and/or metabolic specialist, related to general health. Their role in educating other healthcare professionals (e.g. dentists, physiotherapists, paediatricians, family doctors) and families about the disease and general management strategies is critical and should include the following:

  • Discussing the risks and benefits of intervention and necessary precautions with treatments and evaluations3
  • Dental considerations
    • The wide range of craniofacial and dental abnormalities, which varies by MPS subtype may or may not predispose patients to an increased risk of dental disease13
    • Close monitoring of dental development (at least annually) and regular dental care to prevent caries and attrition of the teeth3
  • Overall health interventions, which may include supportive therapies such as regular influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations, bronchodilators, and aggressive and prompt treatment of upper respiratory infections3

Speciality-specific assessments, as well as regular physical examinations and overall health interventions, should follow recommended guidelines, which may vary among MPS subtypes.3

Continuity of care into adulthood optimises long-term outcomes

Improvements in the treatment of MPS disorders are contributing to long-term outcomes for patients, necessitating new approaches to lifelong management.

As patients age, some may begin to manage their own healthcare, making physician-guided transition to the adult setting critical.3 Physicians should ensure the following:

  • Early and ongoing assessments from a coordinated-care team to evaluate disease progression across organ systems6
  • Maintenance and assessment of patients’ ability to perform activities of daily living6
  • Formal, site-specific transition strategies, including identification of adult specialists with long-term MPS management experience3
  • That patients are not lost to follow-up3
Encourage patients and their families to be involved in site-specific transition strategies, which can be tailored to optimise each individual’s long-term care plan.3

The transition from paediatric to adult care and long-term adult care are critical areas to address in care plans for adolescent and adult patients.3 Long-term care considerations are ideally best addressed in a centre with significant MPS experience, and they require careful coordination across specialities.3,14 Long-term issues include but are not limited to the following:

  • Best practices in adult-care transition
  • Gynaecological considerations
    • Pregnancy and maternity-related issues
    • Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) use during pregnancy and lactation
  • Long-term port management
  • Long-term pain management

Long-term management of MPS disorders, including ongoing assessments and a site-specific transition strategy from paediatric to adult care, may lead to sustained improvement in quality of life and a better future for your patients.3,14–16

Procedural care requires coordinated surgical planning across specialities

Because clinical manifestations of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are multisystemic, a patient-specific, multidisciplinary approach is required to proactively recognise and manage complications. The involvement of a cardiologist in this process is key, as cardiac surgeries are frequently performed for patients with MPS.1-4

Patients with MPS disorders typically have a number of surgical interventions over their lifetimes. A natural history study assessing a cohort of 325 patients with Morquio A (MPS IVA) found that over 70% of patients had at least one surgical procedure.5

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Patients with MPS have a high perisurgical mortality rate due to multiple factors, including upper and lower airway obstruction, cervical spinal instability, respiratory impairment, cardiovascular morbidities, and frequent infections.3,5,6 For example, surgical complications resulted in an 11% mortality rate in patients with Morquio A (n=27).7

Creating a surgical plan is crucial and involves a multidisciplinary team of specialists who are, ideally, also experienced in treating patients with MPS.6

  • Specialities represented may include anaesthesiology, pulmonology, neurosurgery, cardiology, ENT, and radiology.1,3,8
  • In MPS disorders with neurodegenerative and cognitive implications, additional specialities, such as psychiatry and neurology, may be involved.9
  • In addition to the management guidelines, specialists should consult orthopaedic and surgical guidelines.

Cardiac-specific procedural care often includes surgical management of a variety of manifestations. Documented successful cardiac operative procedures in patients with MPS include the following:4

  • Mitral valve replacement
  • Mitral valvuloplasty
  • Aortic valve replacement
  • Ross procedure (aortic valve replacement by autologous pulmonary valve graft)
  • Aortic and mitral valve replacement
  • Coronary artery bypass
  • Ventricular septal defect closure
  • Coarctectomy

Surgical risk assessment and perioperative monitoring are fundamental components of a tailored surgical plan, and they can reduce the risks of negative surgical outcomes and mortality in patients with MPS.6,10,11

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Skeletal and multisystemic complications increase the risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality – guidelines suggest combining surgeries to reduce risk of multiple anaesthetic episodes. Identify risks to lower the likelihood of surgical complications in MPS disorders.10,13

Optimise patient outcomes through coordinated management.

It's a new era in management. Stay informed about the latest updates and information about MPS.

References:  1. McGill JJ, Inwood AC, Coman DJ, et al. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI from 8 weeks of age – a sibling control study. Clin Genet. 2010;77(5):492–498. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2009.01324.x.  2. Furujo M, Kubo T, Kosuga M, Okuyama T. Enzyme replacement therapy attenuates disease progression in two Japanese siblings with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;104(4):597–602. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.08.029.  3. Clarke LA. Pathogenesis of skeletal and connective tissue involvement in the mucopolysaccharidoses: glycosaminoglycan storage is merely the instigator. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011;50(suppl 5):v13–18.  4. Lehman TJA, Miller N, Norquist B, Underhill L, Keutzer J. Diagnosis of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Rheumatology. 2011;50(suppl 5):v41-v48.  5. Morishita K, Petty RE. Musculoskeletal manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses. Rheumatology. 2011;50(suppl 5):v19–v25. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ker397.  6. Muenzer J, Beck M, Eng CM, et al.Genet Med. 2011;13(2):95–101. doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181fea459.  7. Hendriksz C. Improved diagnostic procedures in attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis. Br J Hosp Med. 2011;72(2):91-95.  8. Muenzer J. Early initiation of enzyme replacement therapy for the mucopolysaccharidoses. Mol Genet Metab. 2014;111(2):63–72. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.11.015.  9. Hendriksz CJ, Berger KI, Giugliani R, et al. International guidelines for the management and treatment of Morquio A syndrome. Am J Med Genet Part A. 2014;9999A:1–15. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36833.  10. Bagewadi S, Roberts J, Mercer J, Jones S, Stephenson J, Wraith JE. Home treatment with Elaprase® and Naglazyme® is safe in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses types II and VI, respectively. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2008;31(6):733-737. doi:10.1007/s10545-008-0980-0.  11. BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. VIMIZIM website. http://www.vimizim.com/. Accessed December 21, 2015.  12. BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. NAGLAZYME website. http://www.naglazyme.com/. Accessed December 21, 2015.  13. Muenzer J, Wraith JE, Clarke LA, International Consensus Panel on the Management and Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis I. Mucopolysaccharidosis I: management and treatment guidelines. Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):19–29. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0416.

References:  1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Defining the PCMH. https://pcmh.ahrq.gov/page/defining-pcmh. Accessed December 15, 2015.  2. Muenzer J. The mucopolysaccharidoses: a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable pediatric presentations. J Pediatr. 2004;144(suppl 5):S27–S34.  3. Hendriksz CJ, Berger KI, Giugliani R, et al. International guidelines for the management and treatment of Morquio A syndrome. Am J Med Genet Part A. 2014;9999A:1–15. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36833.  4. Braunlin EA, Harmatz PR, Scarpa M, et al. Cardiac disease in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis: presentation, diagnosis and management. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34(6):1183–1197. doi:10.1007/s10545-011-9359-8.  5. Mohan UR, Hay AA, Cleary MA, Wraith JE, Patel RG. Cardiovascular changes in children with mucopolysaccharide disorders. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(7):799–804.  6. Muenzer J, Wraith JE, Clarke LA, International Consensus Panel on the Management and Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis I. Mucopolysaccharidosis I: management and treatment guidelines. Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):19–29. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0416.  7. Solanki GA, Martin KW, Theroux MC, et al. Spinal involvement in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio-Brailsford or Morquio A syndrome): presentation, diagnosis and management. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2013;36(2):339-355. doi:10.1007/s10545-013-9586-2.  8. Zafeiriou DI, Batzios SP. Brain and spinal MR imaging findings in mucopolysaccharidoses: a review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(1):5–13. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2832.  9. Lachman R, Martin KW, Castro S, Basto MA, Adams A, Teles EL. Radiologic and neuroradiologic findings in the mucopolysaccharidoses. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2010;3(2):109–118. doi:10.3233/PRM-2010-0115.  10. Giugliani R, Harmatz P, Wraith JE. Management guidelines for mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Pediatrics. 2007;120:405–418. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2184.  11. Neufeld EF, Muenzer J. In: Valle D, Beaudet AL, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, et al, eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:3421–3452.  12. Scarpa M, Almassy Z, Beck M, et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II: European recommendations for the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of a rare disease. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:72. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-6-72.  13. James A, Hendriksz CJ, Addison O. The oral health needs of children, adolescents and young adults affected by a mucopolysaccharide disorder. JIMD Rep. 2012;2:51–58. doi:10.1007/8904_2011_46.  14. Coutinho MF, Lacerda L, Alves S. Glycosaminoglycan storage disorders: a review. Biochem Res Int. 2012;2012:471325. doi:10.1155/2012/471325.  15. Kakkis ED, Neufeld EF. The mucopolysaccharidoses. In: Berg BO, ed. Principles of child neurology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1996:1141–1166.  16. Lehman TJA, Miller N, Norquist B, Underhill L, Keutzer J. Diagnosis of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Rheumatology. 2011;50(suppl 5):v41–v48.

References:  1. Muenzer J. The mucopolysaccharidoses: a heterogeneous group of disorders with variable pediatric presentations. J Pediatr. 2004;144(suppl 5):S27–S34.  2. Muenzer J, Wraith JE, Clarke LA, International Consensus Panel on the Management and Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis I. Mucopolysaccharidosis I: management and treatment guidelines. Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):19–29. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0416.  3. Hendriksz CJ, Berger KI, Giugliani R, et al. International guidelines for the management and treatment of Morquio A syndrome. Am J Med Genet Part A. 2014;9999A:1–15. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36833.  4. Braunlin EA, Harmatz PR, Scarpa M, et al. Cardiac disease in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis: presentation, diagnosis and management. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34(6):1183–1197. doi:10.1007/s10545-011-9359-8.  5. Harmatz P, Mengel KE, Giugliani R, et al. The Morquio A clinical assessment program: baseline results illustrating progressive, multisystemic clinical impairments in Morquio A subjects. Mol Genet Metab. 2013;109(1):54–61. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.01.021.  6. Walker R, Belani KG, Braunlin EA, et al. Anaesthesia and airway management in mucopolysaccharidosis. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2013;36(2):211–219. doi:10.1007/s10545-012-9563-1.  7. Lavery C, Hendriksz C. Mortality in patients with Morquio syndrome A. J Inherit Metab Dis Rep. 2015;15:59–66. doi:10.1007/8904_2014_298.  8. Theroux MC, Nerker T, Ditro C, Mackenzie WG. Anesthetic care and perioperative complications of children with Morquio syndrome. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012;22(9):901–907. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9592.2012.03904.x.  9. Scarpa M, Almassy Z, Beck M, et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II: European recommendations for the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of a rare disease. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:72. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-6-72.  10. Solanki GA, Martin KW, Theroux MC, et al. Spinal involvement in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio-Brailsford or Morquio A syndrome): presentation, diagnosis and management. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2013;36(2):339-355. doi:10.1007/s10545-013-9586-2.  11. Vitale MG, Skaggs DL, Pace GI, et al. Delphi Consensus Report: Best practices in intraoperative neuromonitoring in spine deformity surgery: development of an intraoperative checklist to optimize response. Spine Deformity. 2014;2(5):333–339. doi:10.1016/j.jspd.2014.05.003.  12. Solanki GA, Alden TD, Burton BK, et al. A multinational, multidisciplinary consensus for the diagnosis and management of spinal cord compression among patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:15–24. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.07.018.  13. Spinello CM, Novello LM, Pitino S, et al. Anesthetic management in mucopolysaccharidoses. ISRN Anesthesiol. 2013;2013:1–10. doi:10.1155/2013/791983.